Reading: Foundational Skills


    Reading: Foundational Skills

    Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K–5)
    [RF: Reading/Foundational]

    These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system.

    These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will.

    The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

    Print Concepts

    RF1.1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
    Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).

    Phonological Awareness

    RF.1.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
      • Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
      • Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
      • Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
      • Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).

    Phonics and Word Recognition

    RF.1.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs (two letters that represent one sound).
      • Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
      • Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
      • Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
      • Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
      • Read words with inflectional endings.
      • Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.


    RF.1.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
      • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
      • Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
      • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

    *Words, syllables, or phonemes written in /slashes/refer to their pronunciation or phonology. Thus, /CVC/ is a word with three phonemes regardless of the number of letters in the spelling of the word.