Reading: Foundational Skills


    Reading: Foundational Skills

    Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K–5)
    [RF: Reading/Foundational]

    These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system.

    These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will.

    The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

    Print Concepts

    RF.K.1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
      • Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
      • Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
      • Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
      • Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
    Phonological Awareness

    RF.K.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
      • Recognize and produce rhyming words.
      • Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
      • Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
      • Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words.1 (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
      • Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.
    Phonics and Word Recognition

    RF.K.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
      • Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent sound for each consonant.
      • Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
      • Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
      • Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

    RF.K.4 Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

    *Words, syllables, or phonemes written in /slashes/refer to their pronunciation or phonology. Thus, /CVC/ is a word with three phonemes regardless of the number of letters in the spelling of the word.